An attempt has been made in this paper to determine the factors which resulted in preference for Institutional and Non-Institutional deliveries in slum areas of Shillong city. Cross-sectional study was conducted in slums of Shillong City. From a total of 17605 slum dwellers distributed in different proportions in sixteen wards in Shillong city, a representative sample of 1300 slum households was selected from thirty one localities, using an appropriate statistical formula. From these 1300 households, 1417 women were identified as married women eligible for the study. Information of 1417 married women was analyzed to interpret the place of delivery of slum women in relation to respondent’s religion, education, occupation, family income, age at marriage etc. SAS/STAT software was used to analyze the data. The method is based on the well-known statistical technique of factor analysis by which we essentially find out the principal component of the group consisting of various indicators in descending order of their importance. Results from factor analysis show that the total number of ever born children, demand for male child, economic status and customs and religious practices influence both institutional and non-institutional deliveries.
How to cite
Sanku Dey, Enayetur Raheem, and Preenan Sarkar (2015). Identifying the factors influencing institutional and non-institutional delivery practices in slums of Shillong city. Health and Population: Perspective and Issues
Objective: To test if TSH level above 2.1 mlU/L is associated with first trimester pregnancy loss in anti-TPO antibody negative women in Bangladesh.
Study Design: An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bangladesh. Patients were recruited following predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical measures were taken as well as data on socioeconomic and physical characteristics were collected. Patients were grouped according to their TSH level—Group I with TSH ≤2.1 mlU/L and Group II with TSH > 2.1 mlU/L.
Results: We found relatively higher number of women in the case group (18) whose TSH level was above 2.1 mlU/L compared to 7 women in control group. In Group I 45.74% had lost pregnancy while 54.26% had continuing pregnancy during the first trimester. Among the Group II patients, 78% had miscarriage and 28% did not have miscarriage. The association between TSH level and first trimester pregnancy loss was statistically significant (p=.0196).In multivariate analysis, odds ratio for TSH level (OR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.44-11.16) indicates that odds of having miscarriage whose TSH level is above 2.1 mlU/L is 4 times compared to those with TSH level below 2.1 mlU/L after adjusting for the effects of age and BMI.
Conclusion: At a global level, the findings of this study provide evidence to the existing discussion on redefining the upper limit of TSH level that is related to first trimester pregnancy loss. At the local level, the results will have direct implication in facilitating management of future pregnancies particularly during the first trimester among Bangladeshi thyroid autoantibody negative women.
How to cite
Jahan Y, Raheem E, Akhteruzzaman M, Hussain MA, Kazal RK, et al. (2015) Association of TSH Level with First Trimester Pregnancy Loss in Anti-TPO Antibody Negative Women in Bangladesh. Med J Obstet Gynecol 3(3): 1061