A major outbreak of chikungunya virus occurred in Dhaka, Bangladesh between May and September 2017. This study used data from 1,326 patients to investigate the clinical symptoms, quality of life, and economic aspects during the first two weeks of infection. The severity of the disease was similar to previously reported severe outbreaks elsewhere but joint pain prior to fever emerged as a unique symptom in the Dhaka outbreak. About 83% of the patients reported low to very low overall quality of life (QoL). Nearly 95% of the patients have mostly confined to sickbed and approximately 30% of them lost more than 10 days of productivity due to severe arthropathy. This study contributes to establishing an effective syndromic surveillance system for early detection and timely public health intervention of future chikungunya outbreaks in resource-limited countries like Bangladesh.